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Maharashtra
 
               
  Capital : Mumbai  
  Largest City : Mumbai  
  Nickname(s) :    
  Year of Establishment : 1 May 1960 (1st May, Maharashtra Day),  
  Districts : 36  
  Legislature : Bicameral (288 + 78 seats)  
  Parliamentary Constituency : T - 67 , 48 – L , 19 – R  
  Governor : Shri Chennamaneni Vidyasagar Rao  
  Chief Minister : Devendra Fadnavis  
  House of Speaker (Vidhan Sabha) : Haribhau Bagde  
  Chief Justice : Hon'ble Justice Mohit Shantilal Shah  
  High Court : Bombay High Court  
  Total Area : 307,713 km2 (118,809 sq mi), Rank : 3rd  
  Population (2011) : 112,372,972, Rank : 2nd  
  Density : 370/km2 (950/sq mi)        
  Literacy   : 82.9 % Rank : 6th  
  Male Literacy : 89.8 %, Female Literacy : 75.5 %  
  Sex Ratio (Per 1000 Male) : 929 F Growth / Loss : 0.33 %  
  Official language : Marathi  
  Spoken Languages : Marathi, Hindi and English, Konkani, Varhadii, Dangii  
  GDP :          
  State Symbols :-            
  Emblem :   Language : Marathi  
  Song / Anthem :   Dance : Lavani  
  Bird : Pigeon Animal / Land : Indian Giant Squirrel  
  Fruit : Banana, Grapes, Orange, Mango Flower : Lagerstroemia  
  Tree : Mango Hapus Sport : Kabaddi  
  River : Godavari , Krishna , Tapi Calendar :    
               

History

Chhatrapati Shivaji
Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was the founder of the Maratha Empire in western India. He is considered to be one of the greatest warriors of his time and even today, stories of his exploits are narrated as a part of the folklore. King Shivaji used the guerrilla tactics to capture a part of, the then, dominant Mughal empire. Read this biography to get more information on the warrior and his life history:
Early Life
Shivaji was born on 19th February 1630, to Sahaji and his wife, Jijabai, in the Shivneri Fort, situated almost 60 km to the north of Pune. He was named as Shiva, after the local Goddess Shivai, to whom his mother Jijabai had prayed for a son. After being defeated by the combined forces of the Mughals and Adil Shah, Sahaji was offered a jagir near the present-day Bangalore. However, he was allowed to keep his holdings in Pune. So, Sahaji left his son Shivaji to manage the Pune holdings, under the care of his mother Jijabai.
With a small council of ministers, Shivaji began managing his estate. His ministers included Shamrao Nilkanth as Peshwa, Balkrishna Pant as Muzumdar, Raghunath Ballal as Sabnis and Sonopant as Dabir. At the same time, Kanhoji Jedhe and Baji Pasalkar were appointed to look after Shivaji's training. In the year 1644, Shivaji undertook full administrative responsibilities of his estate. Thus was started his career as an independent young prince of a small kingdom. His mother, Jijabai, was instrumental in instilling in Shivaji's mind a love for independence and distaste for external political domination.
Career
The first aggression in the life of Shivaji came at the age of sixteen, when he seized the Torna fort of Bijapur kingdom. By 1647, he had gained control over Kondana and Rajgad forts, with complete power of the Pune region. With time, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj secured the forts in the Western Ghats as well as those along the Konkan coast. Shivaji also fought against the army of Adilshah at Purandhar. In November 1659, he fought the battle of Pratapgarh and defeated Afzal Khan. Immediately after this success, King Shivaji occupied the area stretching upto the Panhala fort.
The battle of Kolhapur took place in December 1659. In the battle, Shivaji crushed the army of Bijapuri general, Rustemjaman. In 1660, Siddi Johar's huge and daunting army attacked him at Panhala fort. Shivaji managed to escape from the fort. However, he soon launched an attack on Siddi Johar. The result was the surrender of Panhala and a truce between Shivaji and Adilshah. After the death of Adilshah, Aurangzeb attacked Golconda and Bijapur. Shivaji used guerilla-style tactics and captured more and more of the Bijapuri and Mughal territories. However, by 1663, he had lost most of his conquests to the Mughal army.
In the next few years, Shivaji again started seizing forts belonging to both Mughals as well as those of Bijapur. Aurangzeb sent Jai Singh, his Hindu general, to capture Shivaji. Shivaji surrendered to Jai Singh at Purander in 1665 and agreed becoming a Mughal vassal. In 1666, he managed to escape form his house arrest in Agra and lay low for the next few years. However, in January 1670, Shivaji launched an attack on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within a period of six months, he won back most of his lost empire. The period of 1670 to 1674 was spent by Shivaji Maharaj in expanding his empire at the cost of the Mughals.
In 1670, Shivaji launched an assault, under his General - Tanaji Malusare, to capture Kondana fort on the outskirts of Pune. The battle was won but he lost Tanaji. In the honor of Tanaji, the Kondana fort was renamed as Sinhagad. Shivaji was formally crowned as Chatrapati (meaning the Chief, Head or King of Kshatriyas) in June 1674 at the Raigad fort. He was given the title of Kshatriya Kulavantas Simhasanadheeshwar Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. The end of 1676 saw Shivaji commencing attacks in the southern parts of India.
Death and Succession
Shivaji breathed his last on 3rd April 1680 in the Raigad fort, the capital for Maratha Empire. He was succeeded by his elder son, Sambhaji.



 
 Chief Ministers of Bombay State
S. N.
  Name / Constituency Party Days in Office Took Office Left Office Portrait
             
1.
B. G. Kher INC   15 August 1947 21 April 1952
2.
Morarji Desai INC   21 April 1952 31 October 1956
3.
Yashwantrao Chavan INC   1 Novr 1956
5 April 1957
5 April 1957
30 April 1960
             
 Chief Ministers of Maharashtra
S. N.
  Name / Constituency Party Days in Office Took Office Left Office Portrait
           
1.
Yashwantrao Chavan INC 933 Days 1 May 1960 19 Novr 1962
2.
Marotrao Kannamwar INC 370 Days 20 Nov 1962 24 Nov 1963
3.
P. K. Sawant INC 10 Days 25 Nov 1963 4 Dec 1963
4.
Vasantrao Naik INC 1548 Days
1840 Days
709 Days
5 Dec 1963
1 March 1967
13 March 1972
1 March 1967
13 March 1972
20 Feb 1975
5.
Shankarrao Chavan INC 786 Days 21 Feb 1975 16 April 1977
6.
Vasantdada Patil INC 319 Days
134 Days
17 April 1977
7 March 1978
2 March 1978
18 July 1978
7.
Sharad Pawar PDF 580 Days 18 July 1978 17 Feb 1980
*
President’s Rule -   17 Feb 1980 8 June 1980
8.
Abdul Rehman Antulay INC 583 Days 9 June 1980 12 January 1982
9.
Babasaheb Bhosale INC 377 Days 21 January 1982 1 Feb 1983
6*.
Vasantdada Patil INC 851 Days 17 April 1977 2 March 1978
10.
Shivajirao Patil Nilangekar INC 277 Days 3 June 1985 6 March 1986
5*.
Shankarrao Chavan INC 837 Days 12 March 1986 26 June 1988
7*.
Sharad Pawar INC 1094 Days 26 June 1988 25 June 1991
11.
Sudhakarrao Naik INC 608 Days 25 June 1991 22 Feb 1993
7*.
Sharad Pawar INC 739 Days 6 March 1993 14 March 1995
12.
Manohar Joshi Shiv Sena 1419 Days 14 March 1995 31 January 1999
13.
Narayan Rane Shiv Sena 259 Days 1 Feb 1999 17 October 1999
14.
Vilasrao Deshmukh INC 1187 Days 18 October 1999 16 January 2003
15.
Sushilkumar Shinde INC 651 Days 18 January 2003 30 October 2004
14*.
Vilasrao Deshmukh INC 1494 Days 1 Nov 2004 4 Dec 2008
16.
Ashok Chavan INC 311 Days
368 Days
8 Dec 2008
7 Nov 2009
15 October 2009
9 November 2010
17.
Prithviraj Chavan INC 1415 Days 11 Nov 2010 26 Sept 2014
*
President’s Rule -   28 Sept 2014 30 Oct 2014
18.
Devendra Fadnavis BJP   31 October 2014 Incumbent
           
Governors of Maharashtra
S. N.
  Name Took Office Left Office Portrait
             
1.
The Rt. Hon. Sir John Colville, PC, GCIE 1943 1948
2.
Raja Sir Maharaj Singh, CIE 1948 1952
3.
Sir Girija Shankar Bajpai, KCSI, KBE, CIE 1952 1954
4.
Dr Harekrushna Mahatab 1955 1956
5.
Sri Prakasa 1956 1962
6.
Dr P. Subbarayan 17 April 1962 6 October 1962
7.
Vijayalakshmi Pandit 28 November 1962 18 October 1964
8.
Dr P V Cherian 14 November 1964 8 November 1969
9.
Ali Yavar Jung 26 February 1970 11 December 1976
10.
Sri Sadiq Ali 30 April 1977 3 November 1980
11.
Air Chief Marshal O P Mehra 3 November 1980 5 March 1982
12.
Air Chief Marshal Idris Hasan Latif 6 March 1982 16 April 1985
13.
Kona Prabhakara Rao 31 May 1985 2 April 1986
14.
Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma 3 April 1986 2 September 1987
15.
Kasu Brahmananda Reddy 20 February 1988 18 January 1990
16.
Dr. C. Subramaniam 15 February 1990 9 January 1993
17.
Dr. P.C. Alexander 12 January 1993 13 July 2002
18.
Mohammed Fazal 10 October 2002 5 December 2004
19.
S.M. Krishna 12 December 2004 5 March 2008
20.
Dr. S.C. Jamir 9 March 2008 22 January 2010
21.
Kateekal Sankaranarayanan 22 January 2010 24 August 2014
22.
Chennamaneni Vidyasagar Rao 30 August 2014 Incumbent
         
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